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Pneumonia symptoms, pathophysiology (pathology) presentation for nursing NCLEX review. In this respiratory nursing NCLEX review, I will discuss the pneumonia pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, types of pneumonia, and how it is diagnosed. This respiratory disorder affects the lower respiratory system and is due to an infection caused by either bacteria, virus, or fungi that causes inflammation of the alevoli sacs. The lung parenchyma are affected which are the alevolar ducts, bronchioles, and aveoli. These three units play an important role in gas exchange in the respiratory system. Patients with pneumonia can experience respiratory acidosis with a PCO2 greater than 45, blood pH less than 7.35, PO2 less than 90, and if the body is trying to compensate the HCO3 will be greater than 26. Types of pneumonia include: community-acquired and hospital-acquired. Pneumonia is diagnosed with a chest x-ray and sputum culture along with abnormal pneumonia lung sounds like coarse crackles, rhonchi (type of wheezing), or bronchial breath sounds in the peripheral lung fields which represent lung consolidation. Pneumonia symptoms include productive cough, pleuritic pain, neuro changes (especially in elderly patients), elevated labs like PCO2 and WBCs, unusual breath sounds, mild to high fever, decreased oxygen saturation, nausea/vomiting, increased respiratory rate and heart rate, and activity intolerance with shortness of breath. Don't forget to watch Part 2 which will include nursing interventions and medications used in pneumonia.

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